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hepatitis A - typhoid vaccine
How does this medication work? What will it do for me?
Hepatitis A vaccine is used to prevent infection by hepatitis A. The vaccine contains inactivated hepatitis A virus that is not capable of causing disease, but instead stimulates your body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the disease. Protection against hepatitis A is usually in place within one month of injection.
Hepatitis A is a serious disease of the liver that is spread most often through infected food or water by the hepatitis A virus. This virus is much more common in areas of the world that have a lower level of sanitation and sewage systems, but it can be a problem in other countries as well.
Typhoid vaccine is used to prevent typhoid fever, caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). The typhoid vaccine contains a small amount of the typhoid bacteria, enough to stimulate your body to create its own protection but not enough to cause serious illness. Typhoid is spread by contaminated water and food.
The hepatitis A – typhoid vaccine is recommended to people over 16 years of age who are travelling to areas where there is a risk of exposure to S. typhi and hepatitis A, or to areas where clean food and water cannot be readily found. Ideally, the vaccine should be given at least 2 weeks before arriving in the area that has suspected hepatitis A and typhoid contamination.
This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.
Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor.
What form(s) does this medication come in?
Each 1 mL dose of vaccine contains: first chamber: S. typhi (Ty2 strain) purified Vi capsular polysaccharide 25 µg, phosphate buffer solution containing: sodium chloride, disodium phosphate dihydrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and water for injection; second chamber: inactivated hepatitis A virus 160 antigen units, 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, aluminum hydroxide (expressed as aluminum), medium 199 Hanks/water for injection, and neomycin (may contain residual traces from the production process).
How should I use this medication?
A qualified health professional will inject the vaccine. For adults and children 16 years of age and older, one dose is injected into a muscle, preferably in the outer upper arm. The vaccine should be given at least 2 weeks before arriving in the area with risk of exposure to hepatitis A and typhoid.
A repeat ("booster") dose for the hepatitis A vaccine is recommended 6 months to 3 years later. A booster for the typhoid vaccine should be done 3 years after the first dose of typhoid – hepatitis vaccine if the person is still at risk of exposure to S. typhi.
Many things can affect the dose of a medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.
Store this medication in the refrigerator, do not freeze, and keep it out of the reach of children.
Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.
Who should NOT take this medication?
Do not receive this vaccine if you:
- are allergic to Hepatitis A – typhoid vaccine or to any of the ingredients of the medication
- have an acute illness, including those with fever
What side effects are possible with this medication?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.
The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.
- injection site pain, redness, and swelling
- joint ache
- muscle ache
Although most of the side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not check with your doctor or seek medical attention.
Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
- signs of a serious allergic reaction (i.e., swelling of face or throat, hives, or difficulty breathing)
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.
Allergic reactions: Rarely, this vaccine may cause severe allergic reactions. If you notice the signs of a severe allergic reaction (hives; trouble breathing or swallowing; or swelling of the lips, face, throat, or tongue), get emergency medical attention immediately. In addition, the vaccine may contain trace amounts of neomycin and thus may cause an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to neomycin.
Immunocompromised people: Hepatitis A – typhoid may not be as effective for people with a compromised immune system (e.g., people who have AIDS, are taking anti-rejection medications after an organ transplant, are receiving chemotherapy, or are taking any medication that suppresses the immune system). Talk to your doctor if you have any concerns.
Infection and fever: If you have an acute infection or fever, administration of the hepatitis A – typhoid vaccine should be delayed except when, in the opinion of the doctor, the benefits outweigh the risks.
Protection against hepatitis A and typhoid: As with any vaccine, this vaccine may not protect 100% of people who receive it. Take all necessary precautions to avoid contact with, or ingestion of, potentially contaminated sources of food or water (e.g., drink bottled or boiled water, wash hands before eating and after using toilet facilities). This is especially important if the vaccine is given less than 2 weeks before arriving at the area with hepatitis A and typhoid exposure risk.
Pregnancy: The medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if hepatitis A – typhoid vaccine passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children under 16 years of age.
What other drugs could interact with this medication?
There may be an interaction between hepatitis A – typhoid vaccine and any of the following:
- immunosuppressants (medications used to treat cancer or autoimmune disease, or prevent organ rejection)
- corticosteroids (e.g., budesonide, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, fluticasone, prednisone)
- medications to treat cancer (e.g., carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, vincristine)
If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:
- stop taking one of the medications,
- change one of the medications to another,
- change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
- leave everything as is.
An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2022. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Vivaxim