Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic that belongs to the family of medications known as quinolones. It is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. It is most commonly used to treat infections of the skin, sinuses, bone, lung, abdomen, kidney, prostate, and bladder.
It can also be used to treat some sexually transmitted infections (STIs), some forms of infectious diarrhea, and typhoid fever.
The extended release form of ciprofloxacin is used to treat bladder and kidney infections.
Each mL of sterile aqueous solution contains ciprofloxacin 10 mg in 20 mL single use vials or 40 mL pharmacy bulk vials. Nonmedicinal ingredients: lactic acid 3.72 mg, sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid to adjust pH, and water for injection.
When ciprofloxacin is given by intravenous (into a vein) injection, the usual dose is 200 mg to 400 mg every 8 to 12 hours. The exact dose of ciprofloxacin depends on the condition being treated and other factors.
Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are using the medication without consulting your doctor.
This medication is always given in a setting with access to sterile equipment for preparation, usually in a hospital. If you are being treated at home, a health care professional will come to your home to set up each infusion.
It is important that this medication be given exactly as recommended by your doctor. If you miss an appointment to receive ciprofloxacin, contact your doctor as soon as possible to reschedule your appointment.
Even if you start to feel better after the start of treatment, it’s important to finish the entire amount that was prescribed. Store the intravenous solution at room temperature, protect it from light, and keep it out of the reach of children.
Do not use ciprofloxacin if you:
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.
The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who uses this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people using this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Although most of the side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not seek medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
Stop using the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
Health Canada has issued new restrictions concerning the use of ciprofloxacin. To read the full Health Canada Advisory, visit Health Canada’s web site at www.hc-sc.gc.ca.
Allergic reactions: In rare cases, some people may develop an allergic reaction to this medication. Signs of an allergic reaction include a severe rash, swollen face, or difficulty breathing. If these occur, get immediate medical attention.
Antibiotic-related diarrhea: This medication, like other antibiotics, can cause a potentially dangerous, severe form of diarrhea called antibiotic-associated colitis or pseudomembranous colitis. Symptoms include severe, watery diarrhea that may be bloody. If you notice these symptoms, stop taking ciprofloxacin and contact your doctor as soon as possible.
Behaviour and movement changes: Rarely, this medication can cause behaviour and movement changes such as agitation, anxiety, confusion, depression, tremors, hallucinations, and other mood changes. If you experience any of the above, contact your doctor immediately.
Driving and operating heavy machinery: Ciprofloxacin may impair your ability to drive or operate machinery, especially when combined with alcohol. Do not drive or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.
Kidney function: Kidney disease or reduced kidney function may cause this medication to build up in the body, causing side effects, since ciprofloxacin is removed from the body primarily by the kidneys. If you have reduced kidney function or kidney disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
Liver function: Ciprofloxacin may reduce liver function and can cause liver failure. If you have liver problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
If you experience symptoms of liver problems such as fatigue, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, nausea, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools, abdominal pain or swelling, and itchy skin, contact your doctor immediately.
Neuromuscular disorders: Ciprofloxacin may cause increased muscle weakness for people with myasthenia gravis (an autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness). If you have myasthenia gravis, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
Other infections: Use of ciprofloxacin for a long time may lead to yeast infections.
QT prolongation: This medication can lengthen heartbeat as shown on an electrocardiogram test, also known as QT prolongation. Very rare cases of abnormal heartbeat have been reported in people while on ciprofloxacin, but these reports generally involved people who had conditions that predisposed them to abnormal heartbeat, or who have been taking other medications that can increase the risk of developing an abnormal heartbeat. If you have heart disease and abnormal heart rhythms, or are taking certain medications (e.g., verapamil, atazanavir), discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. If you develop heart palpitations (fast or irregular heartbeat) or experience fainting spells, stop taking ciprofloxacin and contact your doctor immediately.
Seizures: Rarely, seizures have been reported with this medication. If you have a history of epilepsy or medical conditions that increase the risk of seizures, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. If you have a seizure while taking this medication, stop taking it and get immediate medical attention.
Sucrose intolerance: The oral suspension form of this medication contains sucrose. People who have a hereditary condition that makes them intolerant to some sugars should not take the oral suspension.
Sun sensitivity: People who take ciprofloxacin are more likely to experience sunburn. Avoid exposure to excessive sunlight, including sunlamps and tanning beds. If you must spend time in the sun use sunblock with minimum SPF 15. Talk to your doctor if severe sun sensitivity occurs.
Tendinitis: Ciprofloxacin may increase the chance of tendon injury, which occurs more commonly for seniors who are also taking corticosteroid medications. If there is any new pain in the tendons, stop taking ciprofloxacin, avoid physical exercise, and consult your doctor.
Pregnancy: This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, stop taking it immediately and call your doctor.
Breast-feeding: This medication passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking ciprofloxacin, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of this medication have not been established for children less than 18 years of age.
There may be an interaction between ciprofloxacin and any of the following:
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.
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