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How does this medication work? What will it do for me?
Tipranavir belongs to the class of antiretroviral medications known as nonpeptidic protease inhibitors. It is used in combination with another medication, ritonavir, to treat the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for adults who have tried but not responded to other anti-HIV treatments. HIV is the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV infection destroys CD4 (T) cells, which are important to the immune system and the immune system helps fight infections.
Tipranavir works by interfering with the enzyme (protease) that is needed for HIV to multiply, and lowering the amount of HIV in the blood. They may also help the immune system by increasing the number of CD4 (T) cells in the body.
Tipranavir does not cure HIV infection or AIDS, and it does not reduce the risk of passing HIV to others through sexual contact or blood contamination.
Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.
Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.
What form(s) does this medication come in?
Each pink, oblong, soft gelatin capsule, imprinted in black with "TPV 250" contains tipranavir 250 mg. Nonmedicinal ingredients: Cremophor EL, ethanol, mono/diglycerides of caprylic/capric acid, propyl gallate, propylene glycol, purified water, and trometamol; shell: gelatin, iron oxide red, propylene glycol, purified water, "sorbitol special glycerin blend" (d-sorbitol, 1,4-sorbitan, mannitol, and glycerin), and titanium dioxide; black printing ink: ammonium hydroxide, ethylacetate, iron oxide black, isopropyl alcohol, Macrogol, polyvinyl acetate phthalate, propylene glycol, purified water, and SDA 35 alcohol.
How should I use this medication?
The recommended adult dose of tipranavir is 500 mg (2 capsules) twice a day. In order for this medication to be effective, it must be taken in combination with 200 mg of ritonavir twice a day. This combination should be taken with at least 2 other anti-HIV medications.
Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.
Tipranavir should never be used on its own and should always be used in combination with other HIV medications.
Tipranavir should be taken at the same time as ritonavir, with food. Swallow the capsules whole with some fluid. Do not crush, chew, or open the capsules.
It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. The effectiveness of the medication depends on having the right amount of tipranavir in your bloodstream. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible and continue with your regular schedule. If it is closer to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Before the medication bottle is opened, it should be stored in a refrigerator at 2°C to 8°C. After the bottle has been opened, the capsules may be stored at room temperature (15°C to 30°C) and must be used within 60 days. Keep it out of the reach of children.
Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.
Who should NOT take this medication?
Do not take this medication if you:
- are allergic to tipranavir or any ingredients of the medication
- are taking any of the following medications:
- ergot-type medications (e.g., dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, ergotamine, methylergonovine)
- St. John’s wort
- have moderate-to-severe liver disease
What side effects are possible with this medication?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.
The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.
The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.
Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.
- fatigue or tiredness
- increased sensitivity to the sun
Although most of the side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not seek medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:
- abdominal pain
- changes in body fat distribution
- flu-like symptoms (e.g., sudden lack of energy, fever, cough, sore throat)
- signs of bleeding (e.g., bloody nose, blood in urine, coughing blood, bleeding gums, cuts that don’t stop bleeding)
- signs of infection (e.g., fever or chills, severe diarrhea, shortness of breath, prolonged dizziness, headache, stiff neck, weight loss, or listlessness)
- skin rash
- symptoms of high blood sugar (e.g., frequent urination, increased thirst, excessive eating, unexplained weight loss, poor wound healing, infections, fruity breath odour)
- symptoms of liver problems (e.g., yellow skin or eyes, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, itching)
Seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:
- signs of an allergic reaction (e.g., shortness of breath or difficulty breathing; hives; swelling of the eyes, mouth, lips, or throat)
- signs of bleeding into the brain (e.g., a sudden severe headache, muscle weakness, loss of coordination or balance, vision changes, unusual fatigue)
- signs of pancreatitis (e.g., abdominal pain on the upper left side, back pain, nausea, fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, swollen abdomen)
Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.
Alcohol: Tipranavir capsules contain alcohol. Talk to your doctor if you are pregnant, have liver disease or seizures or have been told to avoid alcohol.
Allergy to sulfa medications: Some people who are allergic to sulfa medications also experience allergic reactions to tipranavir. Before you take tipranavir, inform your doctor about any previous adverse reactions you have had to medications, especially sulfonamide antibiotics, sumatriptan, celecoxib, and certain diuretics. Contact your doctor at once if you experience signs of an allergic reaction, such as skin rash, itching, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the face and throat.
Bleeding problems: People taking tipranavir have experienced intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding into the brain). If you experience symptoms of this condition, including severe headache, nausea or vomiting, unusual weakness or tiredness, changes in vision, or loss of balance, stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention.
If you are at increased risk of bleeding (e.g., taking certain medications, have had recent surgery), discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
Body fat changes: People using tipranavir may notice the accumulation and redistribution of fat in their body. For example, less body fat on their arms, legs, and face, and more around the center of their body (e.g., enlarged breasts, abdominal or central obesity, and a pad of fat on the upper back). The cause or long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time.
Cholesterol: Tipranavir can cause increased blood cholesterol levels. This may happen to people with normal cholesterol levels and high cholesterol levels at the beginning of treatment.
If you are at risk of developing high cholesterol or you have high cholesterol levels before starting tipranavir, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
Your doctor will monitor your cholesterol levels regularly while you are taking this medication.
Diabetes: Some people taking protease inhibitor medications such as tipranavir have developed diabetes during treatment, and people with diabetes have noticed that their diabetes became worse during treatment.
If you have diabetes before starting tipranavir, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
If you notice signs of reduced blood glucose control, such as a fruity odour to the breath, increased urination at night, and thirst, or problems with wound healing talk to your doctor as soon as possible.
Fructose intolerance: Tipranavir capsules contain sorbitol. If you have fructose intolerance, you should avoid this medication.
Hemophilia: People with hemophilia A or B may be at an increased risk of bleeding while taking tipranavir. If you have hemophilia A or B, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
Immune reconstitution syndrome: This medication may cause immune reconstitution syndrome, where signs and symptoms of inflammation from previous infections appear. These symptoms occur soon after starting anti-HIV medication and can vary. They are thought to occur as a result of the immune system improving and being able to fight infections that have been present without symptoms (such as pneumonia, herpes, or tuberculosis). Report any new symptoms to your doctor as soon as possible.
Liver function: Liver disease or reduced liver function may cause tipranavir to build up in the body causing side effects.
This medication can cause severe and sometimes fatal liver problems. People with hepatitis B or C, or liver disease, may experience worsening of their liver disease symptoms while taking this medication. Your doctor will perform liver function tests at the start of treatment and at regular intervals while you are taking this medication.
If you have reduced liver function or liver disease such as hepatitis, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.
If you experience symptoms of liver problems such as fatigue, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, nausea, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools, abdominal pain or swelling, and itchy skin, contact your doctor immediately.
People with moderate-to-severe liver disease should not use tipranavir.
Other medications: Tipranavir may interact with a number of medications, which may mean a change in how you take this medication (see "What medications can interact with this medication?"). Tell your doctor about all medications that you are taking. Certain medications should not be taken with tipranavir at all (see "Who should NOT take this medication?").
Stopping the medication: If you stop taking this medication, your HIV infection could get worse. Take the medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor, and do not stop taking the medication without checking with your doctor first.
Pregnancy: This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if tipranavir passes into breast milk. Breast-feeding is not recommended for HIV-positive women since the virus can be transmitted through the breast milk.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children and adolescents up to 18 years of age.
Seniors:Seniors may be more at risk of side effects from this medication.
What other drugs could interact with this medication?
There may be an interaction between tipranavir and any of the following:
- acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)
- alpha-blockers (e.g., alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin)
- amphetamines (e.g., dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine)
- antacids (e.g., aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide) – take at least 2 hours before or after tipranavir
- antipsychotic medications (e.g., chlorpromazine, clozapine, haloperidol, olanzepine, quetiapine, risperidone)
- "azole" antifungals (e.g., fluconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole)
- midazolam, triazolam
- beta-adrenergic blockers (e.g., carvedilol, metoprolol, propranolol, timolol)
- calcium channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem, felodipine, verapamil)
- cancer medications (e.g., cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, mitotane, tamoxifen, vincristine)
- diabetes medications (e.g., canagliflozin, glyburide, insulin, linagliptin, lixisenatide, metformin, rosiglitazone)
- ergotamine or ergot-type medications (e.g., dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, methylergonovine)
- estrogens (e.g., conjugated estrogen, estradiol, ethinyl estradiol)
- herbal products that affect blood clotting (e.g., cat’s claw, chamomile, fenugreek, evening primrose, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, turmeric)
- HIV integrase inhibitors (e.g., dolutegravir, elvitegravir)
- HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs; e.g., efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine)
- HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs; abacavir, didanosine, tenofovir, zidovudine)
- HIV protease inhibitors (e.g., atazanavir, lopinavir, saquinavir)
- immunosuppressants (e.g., cyclosporine, mycophenolate, sirolimus, tacrolimus)
- low-molecular-weight heparins (e.g., dalteparin, enoxaparin, tinzaparin)
- lumacaftor and ivacaftor
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs; e.g., diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen)
- oral contraceptives containing estrogen or progestin
- phosphodiesterase (PDE 5) inhibitors (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil)
- protein kinase inhibitors (e.g., bosutinib, dabrafenib)
- proton pump inhibitors (e.g., esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole)
- St. John’s wort
- serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; e.g., fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline)
- serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, venlafaxine)
- "statin" anti-cholesterol medications (e.g., atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin)
- theophyllines (e.g., aminophylline, oxtriphylline, theophylline)
- tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, clomipramine, desipramine, trimipramine)
- valproic acid
If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:
- stop taking one of the medications,
- change one of the medications to another,
- change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
- leave everything as is.
An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.
Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2022. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Aptivus