5 Causes of Fibromyalgia – Symptoms, Treatment & Diagnosis

Discover How To Manage Fibromyalgia At Your Local Pharmacy

Fibromyalgia, a condition that affects millions worldwide, often remains shrouded in mystery. Imagine waking up every day with a body that feels like it’s been run over by a truck, with no visible injuries. That’s the reality for many with fibromyalgia.

But what causes this condition? How is it diagnosed and treated?

Dive into this comprehensive guide to understand fibromyalgia symptoms, its root causes, and the available treatments. Let’s unravel the enigma that is fibromyalgia.

What Is Fibromyalgia – Short Overview

Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and tenderness in localized areas. While the exact cause remains unknown, it’s believed to involve various genetic and environmental factors.

The pain experienced is often described as a constant dull ache, typically arising from muscles. This pain must be present for at least three months for a diagnosis to be considered.

According to the Arthritis Society Canada, more than 500,000 people in Canada have fibromyalgia (or 2% of the Canadian population). At PharmaChoice, we understand the complexities of this condition and are here to guide you through its intricacies.

Talk To Your Local Pharmacist To Learn More About How To Support Fibromyalgia

Who Gets Fibromyalgia? Is Anyone At Risk?

Can anyone get fibromyalgia?

Yes, fibromyalgia can affect anyone. However, it’s more common in women than men (80 – 90% of the cases). While it can occur in people of all ages, including children, it’s most often diagnosed in middle age.

Many people who have fibromyalgia also have tension headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, anxiety, and depression.

Are some women more at risk for fibromyalgia?

According to the Women’s Health website, women are more susceptible to fibromyalgia than men. Factors like hormonal changes, especially during menopause, can increase the risk. Additionally, those with a family history of fibromyalgia or other rheumatic diseases might be more predisposed.

The Cleveland Clinic suggests that other factors, such as an infectious illness, physical trauma, or the onset of another disorder like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, might also increase the risk.

5 Root Causes of Fibromyalgia – What Can Cause Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a complex condition, and its exact cause remains a topic of extensive research. While no singular root cause has been identified, several factors are believed to contribute to its development:

1. Genetic Factors

  • Family History: Fibromyalgia often runs in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition. If a family member has fibromyalgia, the risk of other members developing it increases.
  • Genetic Mutations: Some researchers believe specific genetic mutations might make individuals more susceptible to developing the disorder. These genetic markers could influence how the body processes pain.

2. Infections

  • Post-Viral Syndromes: Some infections, like the Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C, or the flu, have been linked to the onset of fibromyalgia in some individuals.
  • Chronic Infections: Conditions like Lyme disease can lead to long-term symptoms that resemble fibromyalgia, suggesting a potential link.

3. Physical or Emotional Events

  • Traumatic Events: Physical traumas such as car accidents or surgeries can sometimes act as triggers for fibromyalgia. The physical stress on the body might lead to the onset or exacerbation of symptoms.
  • Emotional Stress: Significant psychological stress, such as the loss of a loved one or exposure to emotional abuse, can also precipitate the condition. Chronic stress can lead to hormonal imbalances that might contribute to fibromyalgia.

4. Neurological Factors

  • Pain Processing: Research from institutions like the Mayo Clinic suggests that people with fibromyalgia experience changes in the way their brains process pain signals. This altered processing might amplify the sensation of pain.
  • Neurotransmitter Imbalances: Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the brain that play a role in pain perception. Imbalances in neurotransmitters like serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine might contribute to fibromyalgia symptoms.

5. Hormonal Imbalances

  • Stress Hormones: Chronic stress can lead to prolonged elevated levels of cortisol, a stress hormone. Over time, this can contribute to the pain and fatigue associated with fibromyalgia.
  • Sleep Disturbances: The deep sleep stage is when the body repairs and regenerates tissues. Disruptions in this sleep stage can lead to decreased production of growth hormones, which can contribute to muscle pain.

Other Associated Conditions:

  • Autoimmune Diseases: People with autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus might be at a higher risk of developing fibromyalgia. These conditions involve the immune system attacking healthy tissues, leading to inflammation and pain.
  • Mood Disorders: Conditions like depression and anxiety often coexist with fibromyalgia. The relationship between these conditions is complex, and one might exacerbate the other.

While these factors provide insights into the potential causes of fibromyalgia, it’s essential to understand that fibromyalgia is multifactorial. Often, a combination of genetic, environmental, and physiological factors come together to manifest the condition.

Regular consultations with your PharmaChoice healthcare professionals can provide a more precise understanding and guide appropriate management strategies.

Find Relief For Fibromyalgia Pain At Your Local PharmaChoice

7 Common Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia symptoms can vary in intensity and can be triggered or worsened by factors like stress, weather changes, or physical activity. Here are the most common symptoms:

1. Extreme sensitivity

People with fibromyalgia often report heightened sensitivity to pain, known as hyperalgesia. Even a slight touch can be painful. This heightened sensitivity can also extend to other senses, including smell, sight, and taste, as noted by the NHS health website.

2. Widespread pain

This is the hallmark symptom, described as a constant dull ache affecting both sides of the body and above and below the waist. This pain can be so severe that it disrupts daily activities and sleep.

3. Fatigue

Individuals with fibromyalgia often wake up tired, even after sleeping for long periods. The sleep is frequently disrupted by pain or sleep disorders like restless legs syndrome. Healthline mentions that the fatigue experienced can be akin to symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome.

4. Stiffness

Most people with fibromyalgia experience stiffness upon waking, which can last for several minutes or even hours. This can be especially pronounced after being in one position for an extended period.

5. Headaches

Recurring tension headaches or migraines are common and can be exacerbated by neck and shoulder muscle tension. These headaches can be debilitating and affect the quality of life.

6. Poor sleep quality

Apart from fatigue, fibromyalgia can cause sleep disturbances like insomnia, making it hard for patients to get restorative sleep. This lack of rest can lead to a vicious cycle where lack of sleep exacerbates other fibromyalgia symptoms.

7. Cognitive difficulties (brain fog)

This involves issues with mental processes like thinking, memory, and concentration. It’s often referred to colloquially as “fibro fog.” Patients may struggle with attention, switching tasks, or recalling specific details.

Complications of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia can interfere with your ability to function at home or on the job. The constant pain and fatigue can lead to:

  • Interference with your work: Many people with fibromyalgia report difficulties maintaining a full-time job due to recurrent flare-ups. This can lead to financial hardships and increased stress.
  • Issues with your home obligations: The pain and fatigue can impede daily chores, leading to feelings of guilt or dependency. This can strain relationships and lead to feelings of isolation.
  • Feelings of frustration, depression, and anxiety: Living with chronic pain can lead to a range of emotions, from frustration and isolation to anxiety and depression. According to Medical News Today, many people with fibromyalgia also experience mood disorders.

Fibromyalgia Diagnosis – How Is Fibromyalgia Diagnosed?

Diagnosing fibromyalgia can be a challenge, as symptoms often overlap with other conditions. There’s no specific test for fibromyalgia, but a combination of physical exams and differential diagnosis can help:

  • Physical exam: A doctor may check for tenderness on specific parts of your body by applying pressure to 18 specific points. If 11 of these 18 points are painful when pressed, a fibromyalgia diagnosis might be considered.
  • Differential diagnosis: This involves ruling out other potential causes of pain, like rheumatic diseases. It’s believed that other conditions, such as hypothyroidism, can mimic fibromyalgia symptoms.

Fibromyalgia Treatment – How Is Fibromyalgia Treated?

Treatment for fibromyalgia aims to manage symptoms. While no cure exists, a combination of medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes can provide relief:

Exercises and stretches

Regular low-impact exercises like walking, swimming, or cycling can help reduce pain and fatigue. Physical activity can also improve mood and promote better sleep.

Over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription medicine

These can help reduce pain and improve sleep. Non-prescription pain relievers and prescription pain medications can be effective for some individuals.


Medications like duloxetine can help alleviate fibromyalgia symptoms. These can help improve mood, sleep, and pain.

Counselling sessions

Talking with a counsellor can provide strategies to cope with the negative feelings and teach you ways to manage your symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be particularly effective.

Sleep therapy

Improving sleep hygiene can be beneficial, as better sleep can reduce fibromyalgia symptoms. This includes maintaining a regular sleep schedule, creating a comfortable sleep environment, and avoiding caffeine or alcohol before bedtime.

Find Affordable Pain Relief at Your Local Pharmacy to Ease Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Fibromyalgia Medications and Home Remedies

Medications like Pregabalin and Gabapentin can be effective. At PharmaChoice, we offer a range of medications tailored to manage fibromyalgia pain.

Also, lifestyle changes can significantly impact fibromyalgia symptoms. Incorporating regular exercise, meditation, yoga, massage, acupuncture, and a balanced diet can offer relief.

Recommended Fibromyalgia Medications

  1. Pain Relievers: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen sodium can be helpful. However, it’s essential to use them under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they have the potential to cause long-term side effects. For more severe symptoms, your doctor might prescribe medication to reduce pain in fibromyalgia, like Gabapentin. PharmaChoice offers a range of these medications tailored to manage fibromyalgia pain.
  2. Antidepressants: These can help ease the pain and fatigue associated with fibromyalgia. A commonly prescribed antidepressant for fibromyalgia is duloxetine. They can also help improve sleep and mood.
  3. Anti-seizure Drugs: Medications designed to treat seizures, such as epilepsy, are often also useful in treating a variety of other conditions. For example, Pregabalin is sometimes prescribed to help alleviate fibromyalgia symptoms, being authorized to treat nerve pain, according to Health Canada. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you know which medication may be right for you.
  4. Muscle Relaxants: These can help reduce muscle tension and may aid in sleep. Cyclobenzaprine has been shown to help some people with fibromyalgia.

Common Fibromyalgia Home Remedies and Lifestyle Changes:

  1. Exercise: Regular physical activity can reduce the pain of fibromyalgia and improve overall well-being. While it might seem counterintuitive, keeping muscles active and strong can decrease pain. Low-impact exercises like walking, swimming, and cycling can be particularly beneficial.
  2. Stress Reduction: Stress can trigger fibromyalgia symptoms. Techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and progressive muscle relaxation can help manage stress. Engaging in hobbies and setting aside time for relaxation can also be beneficial.
  3. Sleep Hygiene: Establishing a regular sleep schedule, creating a comfortable sleep environment, and avoiding caffeine or alcohol before bedtime can promote better sleep. It’s also essential to keep electronic devices out of the bedroom and engage in calming activities before sleep.
  4. Physical Therapy: A physical therapist can teach exercises tailored to improve strength, flexibility, and stamina. Water-based exercises might be particularly comfortable and effective.
  5. Acupuncture: This traditional Chinese medicine technique involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body. Some studies suggest acupuncture might help reduce fibromyalgia symptoms.
  6. Massage Therapy: Regular massages can reduce muscle tension, improve circulation, and increase feelings of well-being.
  7. Yoga and Tai Chi: These practices combine meditation, slow movements, deep breathing, and relaxation. They can improve both pain and sleep quality.
  8. Balanced Diet: Eating a variety of foods, limiting caffeine and sugar, and drinking plenty of water can help manage symptoms. Some people find that certain foods exacerbate their symptoms, so keeping a food diary might help identify potential triggers.
  9. Heat Therapy: Applying heat, through warm baths or heating pads, can relieve muscle tension and pain.
  10. Biofeedback: This technique teaches you to control involuntary bodily processes such as heart rate and muscle tension. It can help reduce pain associated with fibromyalgia.

It’s essential to remember that while these treatments can help manage fibromyalgia symptoms, they might not work for everyone. It’s crucial to work closely with your PharmaChoice healthcare provider to develop a tailored treatment plan.

Fibromyalgia Prevention – How Can I Prevent Fibromyalgia?

While you can’t prevent fibromyalgia, you can reduce its impact:

  • Reduce stress: Engage in relaxation techniques like deep-breathing exercises or meditation.
  • Balanced diet: Eat a variety of foods, limit caffeine and sugar, and drink plenty of water.
  • Regular exercises: Engage in physical activity regularly, but pace yourself to avoid flare-ups.
  • Sleep hygiene: Establish a regular sleep routine, ensuring adequate rest.
    When Should I Call My Healthcare Provider?

It’s crucial to maintain regular communication with your PharmaChoice healthcare provider:

  • When your symptoms get worse: If you notice an increase in pain or other symptoms, it’s essential to consult your healthcare provider.
  • When you develop new fibromyalgia symptoms: Any new or unusual symptoms should be reported to ensure they’re not related to another condition.

People Also Ask

What are usually the first signs of fibromyalgia?

The initial signs often include generalized pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.

What is fibromyalgia caused by?

While the exact cause is unknown, factors like genetics, infections, and physical or emotional trauma can contribute.

What are the 4 stages of fibromyalgia?

The stages include early, fully developed, severe, and remission stage, each with varying symptom intensity.

When does fibromyalgia start?

It can start at any age but is most commonly diagnosed in middle age.

Can fibromyalgia be cured?

There’s no cure, but treatments can help manage symptoms.

Joseph Dirk

Final Key Points About Fibromyalgia

In conclusion, while fibromyalgia remains a challenge for many, understanding its nuances and staying informed can make a world of difference.

At PharmaChoice, we’re committed to supporting you on this journey, ensuring you have the resources, medications, and knowledge to navigate fibromyalgia with confidence. Remember, you’re not alone in this, and many people are able to live full lives with fibromyalgia.

Reach out to your healthcare provider at your closest PharmaChoice pharmacy near you, and get the right fibromyalgia treatment and medications today!

Joseph Dirk
Dirk Family Pharmacy
Leader and Cabri, SK